Chapter 02: Medical Education and Laboratory Research Solidifies an Interest in Molecular Analysis

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Chapter 02: Medical Education and Laboratory Research Solidifies an Interest in Molecular Analysis

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In this chapter, Dr. Yung talks about his college and medical education and his interest in working at MD Anderson. He begins with his arrival in the United States to attend college at the University of Minnesota (f 1968), a "defining moment" in his life, because of the culture shock. Dr. Yung notes that he began as a sophomore and that his research career began during his undergraduate years as he worked on a project that gave him an interested in cancer: he quantified radiation damage to tissue with different types of radiation. Next, Dr. Yung talks about how his decision to focus on neurology and attend medical school at the University of Chicago, where he kept working on his own research. He talks about his residency and his fellowship at Memorial Sloan Kettering, where he framed his primary research interests: "How do we go from chromosome analysis to molecular analysis?"

Identifier

YungWKA_01_20140320_C02

Publication Date

3-20-2014

Publisher

The Making Cancer History® Voices Oral History Collection, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

City

Houston, Texas

Topics Covered

The Interview Subject's Story - Educational Path; Character, Values, Beliefs, Talents; Personal Background; The Researcher; Inspirations to Practice Science/Medicine; Experiences re: Gender, Race, Ethnicity; Formative Experiences; Discovery, Creativity and Innovation; Discovery and Success

Disciplines

History of Science, Technology, and Medicine | Oncology | Oral History

Transcript

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. [Inaudible]. No. And that also in 19 --- 1967 is the year of the cultural revolution in China and Hong Kong was affected. There was a riot and then there is protests in Hong Kong and it was a kind of chaotic, you know, year in 1967. But I did not leave in 1967 because I did not pass the exam. So I finished Grade 12 trying to go into University of Hong Kong for medicine and I --- I did not make the grade to get in. But --- and so I did prepare. But then I was accepted to the --- to the University of Minnesota. So I am --- I have --- I was given a spot in the University of Minnesota. So when --- when the result come out that I did not make the cut for --- for medicine then --- then I prepared to --- you know, my father --- and my father and my mother agreed that well, go. We don’t want you to stay in the fa --- in the family factory. Just --- Just went --- you know, went to the US now, seek the opportunity there.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Right. So did you arrive without any kind of connections in the US such as ---

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Nope.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Wow. That’s pretty brave.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. I arrived in --- in --- in America with --- just with a --- pretty much just a bag. And went from tropical Hong Kong to freezing Minnesota. Bec --- And also because I --- I --- that’s also a interesting time. That --- I think --- tho --- tho --- those are --- I would consider those as defining moments. Because when I came to the US and went to Minnesota in ’68 --- in --- in the fall of ’68, you know, --- because I made my decision late. I was all sure that I would get into the university in Medicine but when the result came I missed by one or two point and I --- so I do all the prelims[?] (). So by the time I get in, you know, --- get everything done, you know, I --- when I arrive in Minn --- Minn --- Minneapolis, you know report to the university there is no dormitory space for me so I had to look --- look around for housing.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Talk about trial by fire. :9

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. Trial by fire.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Just throw him into it.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Just throw me into it.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

So this must have been amazing culture shock.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So this is very interesting. [inaudible] () I think this is culture shock as well as a defining moment now.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Yeah. Yeah. Tell me how --- Tell me more about the defining moment.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So they --- in those days --- you know, so the --- the --- the university do have so-called Foreign Student Service. I mean, you know, so they will --- you know and --- proba --- you know, the Foreign Student Service is --- was staffed by, you know, foreign students from the various countries that was in that university so they help out the foreign students so as to --- so I’m being a Chinese can --- came from Hong Kong so there is some Hong Kong student that volunteered with the Foreign Student Service. Even though there is not a whole lot of foreign students at that time, but they are. So I was met by, you know, another student from Hong Kong, you know, at the airport so at least somebody --- somebody came to --- to help me out.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Yeah. That’s --- That’s huge.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And then, you know --- And then we --- we --- you know helped me to look for a room to stay --- you know, find a room, you know, by the university to stay. You know, and then later on actually I walk around, you know, --- the --- the first room I had was not --- just a tiny room, so. But it’s good enough to get started where they help me get the room by the university.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

So tell me about your educational path at this time. Wha --- What --- How did you select your major and what did you find really interesting, frustrating, about the education?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Well I, you know, selected biochemistry as my major.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Why?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Because I was interested in medicine so and I --- I was interested in medicine so I selected biochemistry. Because I always interested in medicine and biology. So I was --- I selected biochemistry as my major in college. And I --- then I --- I as --- the --- the Uni --- at the University of Minnesota have a small populations of foreign student from Hong Kong, from Taiwan, and also was from Africa. But, I --- you know, being from --- from Hong Kong and, you know, my English was not very good at that time so and because I was, you know, helped with the --- with the --- from the Foreign Student Service from a group of Chinese. So I hang out with a group of Chinese. But when I was looking for a place to stay after I settled down act --- and then I found a --- a place --- again that’s, you know, what --- why I call it defining moment, maybe that’s God’s will that done. Actually, I find a room in a house that belonged to a Chinese church on campus. And they have, you know, that --- that --- that house has six rooms and they rent out six rooms to six students and I’m one of the six students. And --- And it also so happened that I was the only undergrad student. The other five are graduate students. You know, from --- couple from Taiwan, couple from Hong Kong but they’re Graduate students. So actually I can min --- mingle with a bunch of graduate students. And I al --- And --- And some of them from Taiwan and speak Mandarin and I get to learn Mandarin from these people. And I was involved with them because of the church that --- the --- the building is a church, you know, property and they use the house for some of their evening meeting and so I --- I --- I get exposed to some of the activity and join with others and other students. So. And that really was a --- a lot of help to really help me through this very difficult transition period. And --- And that also helped me grow spiritually to be --- to have, you know, --- to have stronger faith. So I --- I started, you know, as a sophomore because I came, you know after --- after Grade 13. Then with the advanced exam that we took in Hong Kong is recognized as the first year subject, so actually I placed out the whole year of credit and I started as a sophomore instead of freshman.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

I was just thinking, you know, from, you know, not doing well enough on that exam to placing out and becoming a sophomore. That’s --- That’s pretty good.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

It’s pretty good. But it’s still really tough in terms of --- you know, --- since the --- came from --- from the foreign place and trying to get into the American system is tough.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Yeah. That’s very tough. :4

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And --- And so I always had trouble with the Humanity subject with English and English reading, but we are very good with science. I mean, my math and science subjects we --- there’s no issue. Always the problems are always in --- in --- in the Humanity side because we have to fulfil the Humanity [inaudible] (). 0:

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Right. Interesting. Yeah.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And since I was interested in medicine, so I actually I --- when I was involved in some, you know, research work to --- to have the --- as --- as part of summer work and I involved and I worked with a professor in biochemistry to do research. So actually that started my research career.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

What was the project you were working on?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

I was working on --- that’s at the beginning of the DNA time, you know, in the --- in the late ‘60s. So I was working on a --- on a project that involved DNA synthesis. And look at DNA structure and DNA synthesis which was forced nucleotide. And so with the research project ( and, actually it was --- it was a big help and I graduate with summa cum laude.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

So tell me about selecting your medical school, what that was about.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Oh that’s an interesting trip because I was --- I was very disappointed I did not get into medicine in Hong Kong, so that’s I why I studied very hard when I was in --- in, you know, in Minneso --- in college in Minnesota and to prepare for, you know, application to --- to – medical school. It --- It’s also kind of fortunate that in those days foreign students --- even foreign students are allowed to go to medical school for different, you know, state and private medical school we don’t have to be American citizens or American resident to get into medicine back then in the --- in --- in the early --- in the early ‘70s. It was kind of --- as the competition becomes steeper then it’s a lot more difficult for foreign student to get in medical school. But in those days. So I studied ve --- very hard to --- to --- for the MCAT exam to go to med school. And I even find out that there are some university that has a graduate[?] (3), you know will --- will admit, you know, the sophomore and junior so that they can start medicine early. There is, you know --- there is a six years program instead of --- that you can go in after sophomore as a junior. I did apply to --- to --- to Johns Hopkins for --- for me --- for the six years program as soon as I --- after I finished my first year as a sophomore. And I made it into --- into interview. And it turned I was given a chance to interview. Well, partly probably because when I went into Minnesota there’s one way to support myself without working --- a lot of foreign students work in a restaurant as busboy, as waiter to make money to _[inaudible]___ (3). I did not do that. In fact, I worked in the --- in --- in a professor laboratory. You know, I found a job a professor laboratory to wash animal cages. Because --- the profe --- I had the professor in Radiation. No actually, the professor was in --- in Food Science where they use --- you know, she --- she, you know, maintained --- she used --- do animal experiments and so there is a job open in the animal facility for --- for someone to wash cages and change cages for --- for mi --- for mice. So I got a job there.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Did --- Did those experiences in the lab, you know, certainly in the research lab but also for example working for this person in --- in wh

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

A certain influence

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Does that --- that enhance

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

--- that certainly influenced my thinking. You know, in terms of --- you know, --- in one way I don’t have to work in the restaurant to make money to support my --- my school. And another way that I was --- you know, --- I get exposed to --- to --- you know, medical research very early on.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

And just how a lab works.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And how --- how a lab work and so that really influenced my thinking from just wanting to be a --- you know, a private practice or clinical doctor to bec --- to think more about a --- a --- a --- a research that teaching type career. So that --- that really is --- you know, --- is a --- is another, you know influence that I --- that I have because the job that I had in Minnesota also helped me to get a job when I enter medi --- when I get into medical school University of Chicago. Because I was working in the --- in ---with the professor in Radiation Oncology in Minnesota and --- and when I get into University of Chicago he send me to --- to his friend in Radiation Oncology and say well you need a job, you know, to pay for your --- your school and pay for you so go to see this guy. He’ll --- he will help you.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Now is that how you’re interest in cancer started?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Partly because I --- I --- I was working --- in medical school --- I was working in --- in Radiation Oncology Department. In fact, my --- my project at that time is --- is --- is Quantifying Radiation Damage in --- in --- in --- with a --- with the Sprouting Seed Model. You know, so I was working on calculating radiation damage, I mean, with different --- different type of radiation. And --- And even with high --- high energy neutron radiation. So that’s ---

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Very early.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

that’s early on --- early on in my interest in --- in cancer .

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

How did

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

0: The --- The oth --- The other in --- You know, the other exposure to cancer is that I was --- since I work --- I was interested in research and --- and --- as a --- also a research project in a student I actually hook up with a professor in Neurology and --- and he was --- we would --- he has a research topic that was inv --- that involved using virus to induce tumor in mouse, involving brain tumor actually, because the professor, Dr. Vick, and --- and he --- he, you know, --- Dr. Vick came back from --- came back from NIH where he was, you know, a fellow there in NIH during the --- the Vietnam wartime. And his research topic at that time in --- in NIH is creating and using virus to create brain tumor model to study the --- the development of ( brain tumor from --- from --- with a --- from a viral induction point of view.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

So that was very

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And also look

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Cutting edge research.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

---- looking at, you know, vasculature. The ---, you know, --- the integrity of the vasculature which is kind of cutting edge research in --- in brain tumor in the ---in the very early day in terms of tumor genesis.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

That’s a great window into, you know, what’s ---

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

so that ---

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

--- really hot.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

that --- at that point, you know, it really get me, you know, --- the thinking do I --- do I really want to be a practicing doc or do I want to be involved in academic research? And that sort of skew me much stronger into academic research. And that’s another, you know, I think defining influence that --- I have never really, you know, entertained going into private practice. It’s always been involved, you know, with --- with, you know, academic research training.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

And you had the perfect experiences to --- to tract you right into that. Very lucky. Very lucky. So how did you select the University of Chicago? How’d that work out?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

How did I end up in University of Chicago? Well, I was in Minnesota --- University of Minnesota and University of Minnesota is one of the Big, you know, Big 10 schools. You know, and ha --- you know, you’re just a number. Forty something thousand students in --- in the early ‘70s.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Crazy.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Crazy. Crazy. But I --- on the other hand I enjoyed that --- that three years im --- immensely. You know, it was my fir --- my first connection with the US, you know. Even those very cold, you know --- you know, I learn how to skate, you know, I do al --- I learn --- continued my running two hours a day. So but when I was looking for med school, I said, gee, I want to go to a smaller place. I was accepted into the University of Minnesota, you know, and I applied to a couple of other schools. I was accepted to --- to un --- to the --- at that time it was called Marquette. That’s in Minnes --- in Wisconsin but now is the --- is --- is Wisconsin. They change their name now. They belong to the State. And I now --- applied to, you know, University of Chicago and I was accepted to the University of Chicago and so I said, “Gee, this is a smaller school.” It also has very --- a good reputation. And so I went. I went to the University of Chicago. 5

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

So what were some of the high points in --- in your medical school experience? Did it change your direction at all? Solidify? What happened?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Well I mean the one thing is that, you know, I was a --- I was attracted to Neurology, you know, because of, you know, Nick Vick. I mean Un --- University of Chicago has a very strong, you know, Neuroscience Department. Neurology was exceptionally strong back then. Probably because there is a group of professors in Neurology that is --- I mean, they go extra way to really teach a student about the nervous system. Th --- They even have Saturday sessions that --- designed for medical student to, you know, --- to teach --- to --- to just kind of expose the medical student to --- to Neurology. You know, how to really think. You know, how to really utilize the history and the symptoms to think about how the brain functions. So its --- its very, you know ---

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Now when you say history

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Interesting.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

do you mean the patient history?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Becau --- patient history and demonstrating how to examine the patient and based on the history and --- and the exam, you know, to --- to --- to deduce the diagno --- different diagnosis, different disease physiology, and --- and location. And, you know, it’s very stimulating the way tha --- that the teaching was given. So I was attracted to Neurology. And --- And then at the same time my mother --- actually another influence I have to go into the nervous system is my mother developed, you know, a tumor in the spine that make her paralyzed. And --- And, you know, so I --- I was very int --- interested in --- by that --- that again further draw me into --- into know how the nervous system work. And with --- then --- then because I was so interested in --- in Neurology Dr. Vick o --- have opportunity for me to work in his lab as a medical student. So actually I --- I worked in the Radiation Oncology Department for --- for a part time job and I work in Dr. Vick’s lab for my research thesis or research topic.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

) So this was real immersion.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Immersion time. So when I ready to graduate actually I was choosing between Neurology, Neurosurgery, Radiation, and I --- I decided on Neurology.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

0: Why?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Because I was interested in the nervous system.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

That was primarily it.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. Yeah. Primarily it. So I went into Neurology.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

So your next move is you went to California. You get your MD in 1975 from the University of Chicago and then in ’75 you went to the University of California San Diego for your residency in Neurology. How did that happen?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Th --- That happened primarily because I married Susie when I w --- I was a junior in med school. You know, I --- w --- we have a long term courtship in Minnesota to --- Minnesota and Chicago to Hong Kong and then I, you know, I decided, you know to go home to go back to Hong Kong to marry her and she came with me as my --- in my junior year in Chicago. And she have a --- she was a physical therapist and she, you know, got a job in Chicago in the south side of Chicago in a very --- the black neighborhood, you know. And winter in Chicago is unforgiving.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Yeah. That wind.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

That wind. The Windy City. And so it’s --- it’s pretty tough, you know, on her to have to take the bus to go --- go to south side to work. So --- So when I was looking for residency one of the things that we consider is do we want to stay in the North --- in the Midwest for the cold or do we want to go South to warmer climate? And I was accepted into Neurology Residency in St. Louis, back in Chicago --- St. Louis and then I also got accepted --- I get --- also get accepted to --- S --- San Diego. And so I --- I chose to go to San Diego. That’s because wa --- we want to move --- by that time we want to move to warmer climate.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

How did you find the program there? What --- How did that program influence you?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

The pr --- program was okay. Uni --- Univers --- UC Califor --- UC San Diego. You know, you first got in San Diego is --- am --- among the --- the UC campuses when probably --- at that time when, you know equal to UCLA or maybe slightly lower than UCLA and smaller than UCLA. But UC San Diego has a interesting, you know, system because when UC San Diego was created and modeled after --- slightly after the British system to have small colleges. So like Harvard --- maintain some colleges and have a lot of emphasis in --- in --- in academic research. That also carried over to the medical school. The medical school had more --- better in basic science than clinical science. Partly also because there is competition in San Diego to the --- you know, San Diego is --- is --- is a --- is a big Nav --- Navy town --- there is a Naval Hospital t --- there’s a lot of, you know, the --- the private practice doctor there. And so --- so Uni --- the – the UCSD clinical operations always under competition with the Navy with the --- with the private hospitals, but is very well known for the research component. So when I went there I, you know, --- the --- the Neurology Service --- we --- I think its --- they were very good but probably, you know, could even be better and since I started with a lot of interest in research I was alw --- I, by the time I finished, you know, the --- the --- the third years of training I was thinking about wa --- wha --- what to do. What kind of Fellowship I want to have. And I would --- When I was resident in Neurology and my mother passed away because of the can --- because of the tumor even though I took --- I --- arra --- arrangement for her to come to San Diego for treatment --- for radiation therapy treatment, but, you know, she passed away, you know, because of the tumor resulting in paralysis as well as liver, you know, cirrhosis and so. So actually that bring me back about the idea of maybe I should go back to cancer. And also loo --- look at opportunity to --- to do cancer research. So I talked to --- or at that time, you know, when I was looking for Fellowship I said well, do I --- I have opportunity to go to NIH or there is also opportunity to go to Memorial Sloan-Kettering for a Neuro-Oncology Fellowship to do, you know, brain tumor research. So I, you know, --- I took the opportunity of going to Memorial. In fact, I left San Diego a year ahead of time. You know, I --- I did my --- I met, you know, Dr. Posner at --- at Memorial Sloan-Kettering was willing to take me a year a --- ahead to provide me with the --- to make arrangements for me to finish my last years of Neurology training in New York and start my fellowship at the same time, you know. So my first year in Mem --- in New York is actually my last year with Ne --- Neurology training.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Actually I noticed that overlap on your CV

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

And I was wondering about that. I mean that’s an amazing vote of confidence.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Oh yeah.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

from Memorial Sloan-Kettering. I mean they --- So tell me --- tell me about that Fellowship period. What were you working on and how did change or make you grow in perspective?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

That, you know, the --- the Fellowship period, you know, --- the Neuro-Oncology Fellowship in Memorial was one of three training program for people to study Neuro-Oncology in the country at that time. Its --- its pioneer back then. You know, Dr. Posner and Dr. Sh --- Shapiro started Neuro-Oncology program at Memorial Sloan-Kettering and the other two program, one is in Duke by Dr. Darrell Bigner and then one is in UCSF in --- in the Department of Neurosurgery by Dr. Wilson and --- and --- and Dr. Leavens. Those are only tw --- really these are three pioneer in s --- in terms of focusing on treatment and researching in brain tumor. So I --- I went --- So I was involved, you know, very early in my Fellowship in research. I, you know --- I joined a laboratory of --- of --- D --- Dr. Shapiro and his wife Joan Shapiro. And that’s at the time that we were studying tumor heterogeneity, developing cell culture. Doing, you know, cell culture study with ---with different drug and --- and --- and also doing, you know, karyotyping and looking at chromosome --- doing chromosome analysis.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And those are the d --- those are the research that really influenced my whole research career when I finished my Fellowship becau --- We were ---, you know, we enter into in vitro studies, cell --- cell culture study with brain tumor in the very early stage of --- of brain tumor analysis. And when I was a fellow the --- the --- the --- the --- the chromos --- chromosomal changes --- chromosome analysis identifying, you know, some specific chromosome change for brain tumor just in the early phase of development. So --and that the day that --- when we go from chromosome analysis into molecular biology. You know, for --- in --- in cancer research in general as well as in brain tumor. So those few years really it defined my research career, you know, in the last 30 years.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Right. Hmm. Dr. Shapiro’s first name again? I missed that?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

1: He’s William.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

William.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. William Shapiro.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

And his wife is Jo --- Joan.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Joan Shapiro.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh. Okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And Dr. Jerry Posner was the Chairman of Neurology and he’s the one who started Neuro-Oncology.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. He’s --- Posner is a great mentor. He’s --- He’s a genius. He is a walking dictionary in Neurological disease.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

including tumor biology.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

He’s --- actually Dr. Posner’s most famous for his book called Stupor and Coma.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

What is it called?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Stupor. S-T-

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Stupor?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

--- S-T-U-P-O-R. Stupor.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Stu -- Stupor and Coma.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

and Coma.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Interesting. Hmm. Great title.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

1: Well that’s a --- that --- that book is probably the reference on, you know, the --- the mechanism or --- or the --- the --- the --- the dis --- abnormality in the brain that cause patient to become unconscious. Stupor. And w --- And develop coma.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uhm. Interesting.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

:0 Br – with brain swelling

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm. Wow.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

the --- the different way and also th --- the sign and symptoms and --- and the cause of --- of brain swelling, the cause of ---

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Chapter 02: Medical Education and Laboratory Research Solidifies an Interest in Molecular Analysis

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