Chapter 10: Creating a New Department of Neuro-Oncology in 1983

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Chapter 10: Creating a New Department of Neuro-Oncology in 1983

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In this chapter, Dr. Yung tells the history of the Neuro-oncology Department from 1983 to 1988. The Department was formed around the same time as the structural reorganization of MD Anderson according to a division system. Dr. Yung talks about the autonomy that the Department was given within this new system. He notes the functions of the new Department: provide neuro consults, manage the Brain Tumor Clinic and Pain Management Section, and provide psychiatry services. Dr. Yung notes that his vision from the beginning was to build brain tumor research. He talks about milestones: the creation of the Brain Tumor Clinic, then the Fellowship Program, and the Department's growing patient load and reputation. Dr. Yung then explains that he and others created joint meetings and rounds cutting across departmental and division boundaries. He also explains that he took advantage of this collaboration to work with the NCI's Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program to develop clinical trials. Members of the Department joined the Brain Tumor Committee within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group.

Identifier

Chapter 10: Creating a New Department of Neuro-Oncology in 1983

Publication Date

6-18-2014

City

Houston, Texas

Topics Covered

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center - Building the Institution; Multi-disciplinary Approaches; Growth and/or Change; Beyond the Institution; MD Anderson and Government; Building/Transforming the Institution

Transcript

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

So I’ll put on the recorder and then we’ll be ready to go.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Uh-huh.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Okay. The counter’s moving and we are recording. And today is June 18, 2014 and the time is 2:11. And I’m on the 7th Floor of Mendelsohn Faculty Center in the Department of Neuro-Oncology and today I’m interviewing Dr.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

for our third session together. So thank you, Dr. Yung, for

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Uh-huh. Tacey Ann Rosolowski agreeing to fit me in with your busy schedule.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

It’s nice --- It’s been a wonderful experience. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Oh, well --- well I’m glad --- I’m glad. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Today, as I mentioned before we turned on the recorder, I wanted to talk a bit about the department history. And I realized --- was that just thunder? --- I think it was thunder --- anyway. We’re probably going to get a storm here. I realized that in the --- when we first started the interview I think I said that you joined the Department of Neuro-Oncology in 1981, but then I saw that 1983 is when the department was actually started. Is that correct? I mean maybe you could tell me a bit about that history.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

When I came in 1981, there is --- there was no Department of Neuro-Oncology.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Wow.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So I was recruited --- recruited by Dr. LeMaistre to be a neurologist. And at that time Neurology --- I think it is called a section under --- under the Department of Internal Medicine.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Oh, okay. Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Now in 1981 there are th --- there are basically two Departments of Medicine. Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Developmental Therapeutics.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh --- uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So we were under the Department of Internal Medicine.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And I mea --- I think the Chair is --- oh I forgot his name. He’s a Nuclear Medicine doctor ____ ____ (02:16) back --- when we come back.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

We can add it later. Sure.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And then later --- And then Dr. Conrad. Actually, Frank Conrad. I think that D --- Dr. Frank Conrad was the --- the Chair. So we’re a section of Neurology in that time. There was a neurologist recruited before I came. Peter Glass was the sole neurologist at that time doing Neurology consultation and --- and Dr. LeMaistre want to have more people

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

so --- so I came as a neuro-oncologist that do cancer neurology as well as to develop a brain tumor program. And then at the same time actually LeMaistre has also recruited another fellow called Eugenia Obbens and she came with me but she was in Neurology and also Pain --- do Pain Management.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So --- So by --- So when we c --- When --- So both of us came at the same time. Me and Obbens came at the same time so we actually increased the section from one neurologist to three neurologists. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Yeah. That’s pretty amazing.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Right.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And then I team up with the medical oncologist, Dr. Feun --- Lynn Feun. At that time, you know, to create the --- the brain tumor program, I team up with Dr. Lynn Feun --- L-Y-N --- L-Y-N-N -F-E-U-N.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And --- And --- And Dr. --- neurosurgeon Dr --- D --- it will also come back. The name is so familiar as, I have --- I have dementia, can’t think the name. Tacey Ann Rosolowski It’s alright. Those are things we can add later on.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

See --- it’s Dr. Milam Leavens. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Oh. Okay. Milam?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Milam. Leavens. L-E-A --- L-E-A-V-E-N-S Tacey Ann Rosolowski V-E-N-S. Okay. Great. Okay. So that’s --- that’s

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

D --- Dr. Leavens is the only neurosurgeon at that time.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Oh okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

At that institution.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Oh my gosh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

That’s amazing.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Was the only neurosurgeon and so the three of us started the Brain Tumor Clinic.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Wow.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Lynn Feun, me and --- and Milam --- and we started the Brain Tumor Clinic, you know. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Now was that immediate so you --- you did all this like in the first year or first couple of years --- or

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Pretty much the first year.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

First year.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

We op --- We --- We start the --- the --- the Brain Tumor Clinic.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Or ma --- yeah in --- la --- Well I came in July but by the time we started maybe late

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

‘81 or early ‘82.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

But we --- we started right away, you know. Tacey Ann Rosolowski So what happened by 1983 that you were able to actually formalize

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So 1983 we formalized the department because D --- Dr. Bill Fields --- William Fields who was the Chair of Neurology at UT Houston and h --- he, you know, --- so the section of the Neurology is --- is linked with the Department of Neurology at UT Houston.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So --- So Bill --- When Bill retired from --- stepped down and retired from UT Houston he came over to MD Anderson.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Oh I see.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Actually LeMaistre --- Dr. LeMaistre br --- brought him over to Anderson.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And --- And turned the section of Neurology into a Department of Neuro-Oncology.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

with Bill Fields as the Chair

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

in 1983. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Now what was the timing there? I mean, was the time right?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Now Tacey Ann Rosolowski I mean there was a critical mass

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

That timing actually coincide with the organization --- reorganization of the division

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Oh, okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

of, you know, the --- the de --- the --- the formation of the Department of Neuro-Oncology actually coincided with the reorganization of Department of Internal Medicine and --- and Department of Therapeutics, were that the two departments merge into --- into the --- the Divisions of Medicine.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And then were multiple departments. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Right. Yeah you told the story of that.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And then --- And then Department of Neuro-Oncology become one of the departments

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

under the Divisions of Medicine. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Now what was the advantage at the time to having the Department of Neuro-Oncology at that time? I mean, --- I can imagine, but what --- what did you see immediately as a good effect of that?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Well I think the --- it --- one, the advantage of --- its --- lets see how to say. The advantage --- because what is also part of the organization because if you look at that we basically --- Anderson basically create a new system that is a little different from the --- the medical school structure. Medical school structure have department and then division under it. We actually flipped it. In 1983 we --- we create a new system that --- we create a big division and then put the department under the division. So it may not be really a traditional department structure.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

But when the organization was created it actually give the department some autonomy because the department has its own o --- faculty allocation. How many faculty is allotted to that department. The department is given an independent budget and the departments also have more say an --- in the direction of the department. So there is a --- a good advantage. So when we created the department --- actually, in 1983 the department was given several function. We not only --- We have Neurology doing --- as --- as the --- doing the Neurology consultation and now we call Cancer Neurology. We --- The Brain Tumor, you know, Clinic that we --- th --- the medical oncologists of patient with primary tumor.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

We also have Pain Management section in the department w --- you know, with the Pain Management Group. We also actually at that time --- Psychiatry also put under Neurology because the Psychiatry is very small with --- with the --- with the structure that we build in the division. You know, Psychiatry was put under Neurology as a section.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

You know. So we are section of Neurology, sections of --- of Pain Management and section of Psychiatry and that form a department. So that’s because the advantage that we have is now we actually, you know, have --- putting so --- some related services together as a group with our --- with, you know, we’re able to have an independent budget for allocation. We actually also develop laboratory research under that we --- we given the, charge of developing laboratory research in brain tumor. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Now I had in my notes and I just want to make sure this is correct, from 1984 to 1999 you were Deputy Chair of the department. Is that correct or ---

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

I think so.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Bi --- Bill Fields --- Dr. Fields was the Chair.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Was chair. Okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

I think he made me something sort of the --- the --- the Deputy Tacey Ann Rosolowski Deputy Chair --- so you were. Now in terms of creating this vision for the department when all of these different sections and different functions --- was that something --- how was that created? How was that vision created?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Well I --- I think it is --- it is --- it is a natural development. We have, you know, the --- the mission and the function of, you know, being the --- the institution’s neurologists

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

and we also have the function and --- and mission of being the department --- they --- the --- the institutions brain tumor doctors

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

--- the neuro-oncologists and Pain Management, you know, need to be --- has its own but its different direction from Neurology. And at that time a lot of pain ma --- pain doctors are actually neurologists. You know, and so like Dr. Obbens is a ne --- was a neurologist and neuro-oncologist, but she specialized in Pain Management

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

When she was a fellow at Sloan-Kettering, she attached to the Pain Management Group. And then at that time, there is also Dr. Stratton Hill. I don’t know if you knew him. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Yeah, I’ve interviewed him.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Stratton was doing Pain Management. So actually Stratton as an endocrinologist

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

was, you know, put under Neurology to be --- to create a section of Pain Management.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And --- And so --- so you put the mission and function together

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

and do --- and then the psychiatrist Tacey Ann Rosolowski And it all lined up.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. It’s all lined up. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Yep. Now what --- what were your hopes? You know, because here you are. There’s this new administrative structure, you’ve got everything in place. What did you hope would happen in the early ‘80’s when you saw this set in place and the department has its own identity and now its autonomy and its own budget and kind of its self-determining?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Well my personal direction is, you know, I am more into, you know brain tumor research.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

More so than Neurolo --- you know, general Neurology.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So --- So my --- my --- at that --- my --- a --- my hope is --- is to help build the department with, of course, mysel --- I, myself, will focus on, you know, brain tumor, you know, care and brain tumor research together with Neurology.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

But my, you know, secondary interest, you know, is brain metastasis and neurological complications ____ --- _____ () to. And --- And also, you know, in order to build Neurology since we have so much overlap in functions with Pain Management and also with Psychiatry at that time, I --- I --- I think, you know, --- We were hoping that with that synergy the whole group can grow. In the early ‘80s its pretty --- I mean, we are in very close group of faculty.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And its really dev --- it is a very early developing phase of the institution. So I mean, my --- my goal is working, you know, working with Dr. Field. Dr. Field is a stroke neurologist. Dr. Field really have t --- is --- the --- is not a neuro-oncologist per se. And so we as a young people is the one who really take --- take the

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

( --- you know, --- take the vision and want to do something, you know. . Tacey Ann Rosolowski Uh-huh. So tell me how that happened. What were some of the big milestones in the early growth of the department?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Well the --- the early growth --- so we’r --- so we started --- we started in the Neurology side. We started with three neuro-oncologists. Glass, me, and Obbens. And--- And --- And Bill was the Chair. So we have four faculty on the Neurology side and then we have two faculty in Pain Management. And that’s Obbens and Stratton Hill. And I don --- I think we have two psychiatrists. I don’t remember very clear in my mind now. I think we started with either o --- only one psychiatrist or two psychiatrists at that time.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

You know. So the --- the --- the --- and in th --- the first m --- the --- the first really, you know, I think accomplishment is to establish of the Brain Tumor Clinic.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

We grow the Brian Tumor Clinic very quickly. That actually required an additional neurosurgeon. So, you know, --- So the expansion come first is recruiting two more neurosurgeons

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

into --- into Neurosurgery to work --- to --- to help Dr. Leavens. So I think very quickly, you know, we expand the --- the Neurosurgery section to include --- to recruit Richard Moser () and J. Bob Blacklock. Blacklock is now at Methodist. And so --- Tacey Ann Rosolowski And that’s Bla --- Blackwell?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Blacklock. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Blacklock. Uh-hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

B-L-A-C-K-L-O-C-K.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Blacklock. So --- So we expanded Neurosurgery Group right away to --- because we --- we --- really expanding.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. And then Pain Management also grown and very quickly we --- we recruit another pain person which is Richard Payne. P-A-Y-N-E. And then order to --- Then --- Then the next phase is we est --- we --- beside --- we always had a resident program

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

because in Neurology we always have residents come from UT Houston. W --- We also creat a fellowship program to --- to train Neuro-Oncology fellow. These are neurologists who want to specialize in Cancer Neurology and Brain Tumor Management.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So we --- we take on graduate from Neurology Training Program to spend two years with us.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So we cr --- you know, that’s so the --- the next phase of development is we create a fellowship Tacey Ann Rosolowski You know, it’s so hard to imagine what the institution was like at that time. You know, when there were simply areas that were very, very underrepresented or not represented at all. You know, how did expanding Neurosurgery --- you know, hiring two more neurosurgeons --- you know, opening a fellowship program so you suddenly have this new blood coming in. How did that change the environment of the department? You know, wh --- what --- what was it like to suddenly have more people around and that synergy? What was happening with that?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

. The --- I mean I think th --- the department, you know --- of course we --- we did not expand explosively,

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

but I think we expan --- we expanded in a rapid phase which, you know, I think is --- is outcome of, you know --- because there is a need.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

You know, as the institution grow there is a --- you know, --- a great need for Neurology consultation. There is also -- we gain reputation about brain tumor treatment so more patients come. So as we w --- I think the --- the --- the mood of the department is that we have this whole opportunity to really create a entity. And a -- to create the reputation of being good. Neuro-Oncology was a new field

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

in the early ‘80s. It started with Memorial Sloan-Kettering and the other group is --- is UCSF who focus on brain tumor research. But it is --- so we are the new --- basically, the new guy on the block because we --- we came up

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

--- they came from Mem --- I came from Memorial to really ---

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Wow. Right

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

to build a new shop. So we al --- really in a --- in a building mood. And then we are h --- we’re very proud and happy that we a --- we are making something.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

You know. And with the help of I think --- I’m going to say, you know, with --- with the help of Dr. LeMaistre.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

You know, we do --- very interesting what we’re doing. We both willing to give it to resources and we were able to really establish a major foothold and --- and reputation in the --- in this niche area of Neuro-Oncology

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

--- or develop Cancer Neurology and Brain Tumor Treatment and Pain Management. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Uh-huh. Now I kind of interrupted you, you were

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So Tacey Ann Rosolowski talking about the fellowship program

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So they --- the --- the --- there’s a group of young faculty feeling, you know, very excited and --- and energized. We’re building something. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Uh-huh. How big was the fellowship program when you started it?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

When we started it was only person.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Only one person.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

One person.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Right

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Two person.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Yeah.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

We cannot have a b --- even now we still do not have a big program.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Now we still maintain a program in --- in two to three per year. So we have a total of five or six fellows.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Over a two year or three years period. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Now how did you structure the fellowship program in those early days?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

I think that the early days pretty much, you know, apprenticeship. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Apprenticeship. Hmm. Yeah.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Yeah. Tacey Ann Rosolowski And research involved?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

All we --- do --- the --- the institution already have --- in the Medical Oncology side have some --- had fellowship program --- had some dytetic --- dyadic

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

inf --- you know, infrastructure in teaching so we incorporate that and then make our --- our fellows go to those lectures.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And then we also have basically, you know, our own, you know, interaction. The more, you know, in a meeting fashion. And I will meet with the fellows, you know, weekly. You know we have --- we have rounds, you know. So --- So morning repo --- we have morning report and morning rounds that we discuss issues with. Tacey Ann Rosolowski So its almost like, you know, as you said mentorship or an apprenticeship. " "

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Its really a mentorship and apprenticeship

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Yeah. Right.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

and for the clinic, you know

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

and do consultation. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Uh-huh. Is there a research ---

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

So the --- they serve more like a junior attending.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Oh okay.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

Between, you know --- so. Tacey Ann Rosolowski I was just ask --- asking was there a research component p --- put into that as well?

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

There --- The --- The research components, you know, early on is more in the clinic research because I, you know --- I start developing the --- the --- the --- two research directions because I have my laboratory

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

In 1983 we also recruited a research faculty as --- so we --- that’s how we --- we also recruited a research faculty, Dr. Peter Steck.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Alright.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

You know, and joined the department as a research faculty so Peter and I spearhead the --- the --- the research development side.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

laboratory research _____ (). And then I also spearhead the clinical research development side which is to re --- you know, develop --- you know research protocol, research study

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

with --- with --- with participating program NIH

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

and NCI now.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

You know. So Tacey Ann Rosolowski So that was initiated really early too.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And that --- And then in the early clinical trial we --- we sort of --- you know, we --- we worked together with the div --- with the division, you know.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

That’s also wh ---- when Marty was there. I mention Bob at that time did the --- did the clinical research for the --- for the Division of Medicine.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

You know. And so --- And wh --- At that time we’re small enough that really the --- the clinical research development cut across all the department ---

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Hmm.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

--- well solid department versus liquid department.

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

Uh-huh. Uh-huh.

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

And --- And we are mourning --- I think there was a day that all the --- all the clinical faculty involved in research in the division have a meeting to get a goal or the protocol where d --- doesn’t matter which department we’re all --- all go over the protocol together. Tacey Ann Rosolowski Were those the institutional Grand Rounds or ---

Wai-Kwan Alfred Yung, MD:

That’s it --- no that is

Tacey Ann Rosolowski, PhD:

That’s different.

Chapter 10: Creating a New Department of Neuro-Oncology in 1983

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